...and the winner is:

Heute ist eine Studie Low-Carb vs Low-Fat vs Mediterran im New England Journal of Medicine (!!!) erschienen:

Und sie macht schon richtige Schlagzeilen!

Shai, I, et al.

Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet

Background: Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently
limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates.

Methods: In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age,
52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the
height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie;
Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non–restricted-calorie.

Results: The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The
Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the
highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (P<0.05 for all comparisons among
treatment groups). The low-carbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates
and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest
percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (P<0.05 for all comparisons
among treatment groups). The mean weight loss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4
kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (P<0.001
for the interaction between diet group and time); among the 272 participants who completed
the intervention, the mean weight losses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively.
The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group
(P = 0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and
insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than
among those assigned to the low-fat diet (P<0.001 for the interaction among diabetes
and Mediterranean diet and time with respect to fasting glucose levels).

Conclusions: Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat
diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on
glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences
and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions.
(ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00160108.)

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